December 2, 2020

We Travel To Kenya To Learn About The First Woman In History

– We're looking at maternal haplogroups.

And we can trace it allback in time to one woman.

– This is one of the mostbeautiful things I've ever seen.

– Oh (bleep).

I can't believe thatwe're allowed to be here.

– I've never beenoverseas ever in my life.

I didn't realize how integral this part of the world was to all of humanity.

– I feel so lucky.

This is insane.

– So remember that time we alltook 23andMe genetic tests? (spitting) – Yeah.

– In addition to finding out where our recent ancestors are from, we also found out where ourdistant ancestors are from.

So we all have different haplogroups.

And that means that ourdistant ancestors can be traced back to differentregions of the world.

But every person livingtoday, including you, can trace their haplogroupsback even further to one common haplogroup known as L.

The L haplogroup lived in eastern Sub-Saharan Africa over 150, 000 years ago.

While we don't know exactly where in eastern Sub-Saharan Africathey would have lived, we decided to travel tothe region of the world where they would have existed.

It's the Ladylike show, andwe're traveling to Kenya.

– (cheering) – Woo! Y'all, we're going to Kenya! – Yeah! – This is really exciting, because I don't know if you guys know or not, butI've never traveled overseas.

So this is absolutely going to be a huge check mark on my bucket list.

Getting to know myself moreis perfect for this trip, because Africa is most definitelyan extension of who I am.

And the results that I got back from the 23andMe test were a bit broad.

In regards to haplogroups, especially L, and how it relates to all of us, I feel like Kenya's anawesome starting point.

– Yeah.

– Yes.

– The originator of the L haplogroup would have lived in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Sub-Saharan Africa is, like, huge.

– Expanding.

There's, like, multiple countries.

There's so many different types of people.

There's so many differentcultures within that descriptor.

So we chose Kenya becausewe were able to reach out to some scientists at theNational Museum of Kenya.

– Also just as a general disclaimer, the scientific communityuses the term paternal and maternal to delineate who gave birth.

We all understand thatwhen we say maternal, not everyone that givesbirth identifies as a woman.

So just FYI.

There's going to be a lotof science on this trip.

But we also want to have a little fun.

– So we are going to hang out with the girls from the Over 25 channel.

They are also a group ofcreators who are ladies.

We're also going to see animals.

(elephant trumpet) – Animals!- Oh, yeah.

– One, two, three.

Kenya! – So we need to wear clothesthat are lighter in color.

Because mosquitoes love to bitepeople wearing dark colors.

And I hate mosquitoes.

– Yep.

So these are like, mylittle going out slacks.

– Woo! Cute.

– Pale pink with, like, a pale pink little shirt.

– (gasp) Cute.

I bought one, two, three pairs of linen pants.

My pants collection isnow up to five pairs.

– Wow.

– I know.

It more than doubled overnight.

– He is not playing with these mosquitoes.

He looks likes he's goingto a Diddy yacht party.

And then I've got somepants from the thrift store.

It's debatable if theseare pajamas or not, but I'm going to make it fashion.

– Well, it's sleep, but make it fashion.

– Sleep, make it fashion.

– Packing for Africa.

Needless to say, I'm a little stressed.

At the same time, I'mtrying to remember that I'm going to forget about thisthe moment I see an elephant.

– What are you doing, bud? I have some freeze dried olives and some Taco Bell mild sauce.

You can say what you want about Taco Bell, but they've got some good sauces.

Devin and I are also rooming together.

And since I am very regular, I am bringing Poo-Pourri.

– The great thing aboutpacking is that it's a wonderful opportunity to remind yourself how wonderful you areat remembering things.

Like, I made a lot of lists to remind myself the things that I need, but I'm probably still going to leave, like, my butt at home.

– Today is the day.

Ah! We're here.

Off to a momentous start.

– We're walking to check-in.

This still doesn't feel real yet.

– It doesn't feel real.

It's not going to feelreal until we're there.

And then it's going to feel the most real.

– The most real, exactly.

– So I wanted to take this opportunity to talk to you about airport fashion.

Because it is my belief thatyou should dress in essentially pajamas when you're going to the airport.

However, young Fred has to look cute.

You can't talk.

You're wearing a beautiful dress.

– I have one step.

Step one, dress.

Step two, walk away.

– I've been thinking about it, and I think I'm going to takeoff my bra during the flight.

– I support that.

– I support it, too.

– Great.

I'm glad we.

.

.

– No pun intended.

– I'm taking my bra off.

– Oh, cool.

I'm not even wearing one.

– Woo! – Kristin and I took thefirst Polaroid of the trip.

Here it is developing! – All right, here we go.

We're taking off.

– Hey, we're in Amsterdam.

Can you give me some weed? – (laughing) – Got her.

– We're stuck at the airport because our flight's delayed because of the storm.

But Jen is having a good time trying to figure out whatAmsterdam Tinder is like.

A lot of names I can't pronounce.

– (laughing) – I love this country.

I love it so much.

– Let's buy some tulips and cheese.

– Oh my god, yeah.

– Yes, Kenya? Yes, we're on the way.

They're expecting us.

– Made it.

After how many hours? – 22.

– We knew we were gettingland cruisers, but we did not realize this wasthe kind of land cruiser we're getting, and it's super cool.

– It's like a safari cruiser.

– It's so dope.

– It is 2:17 in the morning, and we have decided to havea nightcap at the hotel.

– Oh, thank you.

– Ooh, thank you.

– It's so nice to see you.

You're my favorite.

You're my favorite thingI've ever encountered.

Oh my god.

– So it's the first dayofficially in Kenya.

– Top of the morning.

– Top of the morning.

How are you all feeling? – I'm feeling great.

I'm feeling energized.

– Mm-hmm.

– I feel hydrated.

– You look good, Freddie.

– You do look good.

– Yeah, you look fucking ready to go.

– Yeah, I'm ready.

We're here.

We made it.

– Yay!- Yes.

Last night, we landed atabout 11:30 PM with Sam.

So tell us a little bit about who you are and why you're here.

Sure.

So I'm a content and curationscientist at 23andMe.

And I'm just really excited to be here talking with you guys aboutDNA, and women, and haplogroups, and all these other crazy things.

– My question is, we hearthe word haplogroup a lot in terms of our 23andMe results, and also why we're here.

What is a haplogroup? When people think of DNA, they're typically thinking about DNA that's found insidethe nucleus of the cell.

But the DNA that holds thesort of ancient genetic information that we use toidentify maternal haplogroups is found in the mitochondria of the cell.

The DNA that's in this mitochondria is called mitochondrial DNA.

Big surprise.

You might have heard this before.

They're the powerhouses of the cell.

– Yeah.

– That's, like, the only thing anyone remembers from biology.

– Yeah.

What scientists have been ableto do is trace all the way back over 100, 000 years agoto the common female line ancestor of everyone who'salive on earth today.

– 100, 000 years ago? – Yep.

– That's insane.

– That's so cool.

– What is the significanceof the L haplogroup? – From what we knowabout the L haplogroup, it's the kind of main haplogroup within the continent of Africa.

There was this womanover 100, 000 years ago.

At some point, she hadat least two daughters.

And one of those daughters was forming this branch that we now call L0.

And the other daughter formed this branch that was all the rest of the L's.

And then many thousands ofyears later, one of those great great great granddaughters, she had two daughters.

And that started splitting into the rest of the people that wesee outside of Africa.

– So basically, we areall descendants from the one woman whostarted the L haplogroup.

– That's right.

But because it is so farback in time, it's not really the same as saying, youknow, my great grandma lived in Africa, and I'm her descendant.

It's like, the ancient lineage of all humans who are alive today.

And it is traced to Africa because that's where modern humans kind of first evolved.

– So just so everyone is clear, we're not all from Africa.

Don't leave this video saying that.

– So now that we know a little bit more about the science behind haplogroups, we're going to go talkto some anthropologists.

And they're going totell us a little bit more about how these women lived.

– So cool.

– Let's do it.

Let's go, yeah.

– Freddie's just over here in a corner, striking a cool pose.

– Always.

– And then boppin' around is Kristin.

– Always boppin'.

– So we're here in the National Museum of Kenya with Dr.

Mbua.

Hi, Dr.

Mbua.

– Hi.

– Hi.

– My name is Dr.

Emma Mbua.

And I'm a paleoanthropologist interested in the studyof human evolution.

– So where in Africa do you think the Mitochondrial Eve would have been living? – In eastern Africa, we havethe evidence from the fossils.

They found that people livingin eastern Africa today, their mitochondrial DNA points to that mother, 200, 000 years ago.

I don't know whether youunderstand all that science.

– (laughing) – I love that you'rebasing that off of my face.

You know, you know.

– So in terms of, like, bone structure and bodies, and how we look today, how different is that from the Mitochondrial Eve's bone structure and her sort of makeup? – The evidence that there is, looking at the postcranialand the limb bones, the mitochondria mighthave had our bone features.

– Why was human development around 200, 000 years ago such a critical period? – There was a big debate, you know, to the questions of where did modern humans arise from.

That's where they wentto the studies of modern mitochondrial DNA of the living people.

Therefore, you know, afterobtaining all those samples, they were able to calculate back.

Which one, you know, hadmore diversity in it.

So there were less diversityin the DNA of the European.

Less diversity in East Asia.

But more diversity was found in Africa, meaning that it had been here for long.

This evidence of the mitochondrial DNA supports Africa as theplace of modern humans.

– Wow, I have chills.

– That is so cool.

– Did she suffer from thepatriarchy like we do? – First full day in Nairobi.

– Woo! – So we are at Carnivore, about to have dinner.

– Carnivore is this badass restaurant, and they have all types of meat and game.

– Whatcha drinking? – I actually don't know what it's called.

– It's called a Dawa.

– And there's vodka and tea.

– Lime.

– Honey and lime.

– Yes.

– The guy sold it tous as African medicine.

I was like, I coulduse a doctor right now.

– So I was wearing my shirt backwards for most of the day, and I fixed it.

The end.

All the interviews we'vedone, most of what we shot was wearing my shirt backwards.

So we have invited the girls from Over 25 to come have dinner with us.

– Yes.

– We are super excited to hang with them.

– Hold on, my drink is.

.

.

I'm grabbing my drink.

We're having drinks handedto us while we're shooting.

I'm really excited to tryall the cool meats they have.

– Meats.

– Meats.

– Meats.

– Meats.

– Meats.

– Meats.

– Meats.

– Meats.

– Meats.

– Meats.

– I am.

– Vegetarian?- Yes.

(audio drops out) Thank you.

– Meats, meats, meats, meats.

– Yes.

– No! – I can't handle you.

Is this crocodile? – Yep.

No! – Day two in Nairobi.

We are starting the morning off very early at 6:30 AM Nairobi time.

We are going to go get breakfast, and then we are going to go tothe elephant orphanage.

And then, we're going to go into the city and do some shopping.

Very, very excited.

Oh, it's so much fun here.

I love it.

– Our server told me this is his favorite.

Chai just means tea.

– But guess what we learned? In America, we'll say chai tea because it's, like, a type of tea.

But here, chai is justtea with milk in it.

Did he bring you milk? – He did bring me milk.

That means mama needs a Lactaid.

– Oh, boy.

– Hi, Regina.

– I get really carsick, so I make everyone else sit in the back so I can sitin the front, so I don't vom.

– I've had three hours of sleep.

Just arrived at the elephant orphanage.

– These are elephants that have been orphaned for various different reasons.

They are being rehabilitatedto go back out into the wild.

So their main goal is not to be with humans for the rest of their life.

Their main goal is tobe with other elephants.

– Yeah.

But they did tell us that if we want to, we could foster a baby elephant.

– (laughs) We're going to bring him home with us, and it'll be easy.

– Yep, that's how you do it.

– They'll get along great with James.

– Yeah.

– It's really important that we conserve these animals, and.

.

.

I think we're mindful of the fact that the circumstances under whichthey're here are not good.

– Yeah, and we're justhere to give some love.

– This is like a Studio Ghibli film, all the animals, and, like, the beautiful landscape.

– Oh, he's peeing right now.

Good for him.

– Good job.

Nice work, buddy.

– Edwin is my name, and this is the David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust.

So this project is taking care of orphan baby elephants and orphanbaby rhinos, and later on, reintroducing them back into the wild.

And that's why all the babies we have to see here today are orphans.

– You guys, are you ready? – Yes.

– So ready.

– Kris will never be ready.

– We rescued them fromdifferent parts of the country.

And they all have differentreasons for being orphans.

The babies are still very young.

And they do not know how to survive without the mother's milk.

Nursed with our protectionagainst the dangers, they will be trained, they will be protected, and so will behave like anyother wild elephant out there.

When we see that happen, then we set them free and let them become wild once again.

Once they finish the milk, then they are relaxed and calm, and so you can interact with them.

Make sure that you don't scream and shout.

That makes them get overexcited.

They all have different characters.

Some are very social and friendly, and want to stick withyou and play with you.

Some are very shy, andwant to stay away from you.

And a few of them havethe naughty character, and might want to comeand push you around.

They all have names.

The youngest that will comedown here is 8 months old.

The oldest is approximately 7 years old.

– Do you have a favorite? – All of them.

– (laughs)- They're all your children.

– They're everywhere, I love it.

– What you doing? You look like you're kissing.

What's going on over there? You making some noises? – Mm-hmm, yep.

– That's a fart.

– So these elephantsare the sweetest ever.

They have such different personalities.

Some are really rowdy.

Some are really friendly and calm.

And some are super shy.

I mean, I'm just surprisedthat they're even just letting us be around them.

Little baby likes my dressa little bit too much.

We had a little yum-yum.

– Look at that one.

He's rolling on the ground.

Oh, he's so playful.

Good job, buddy.

– This was amazing.

There's nothing likebeing around elephants.

They're so smart, they're so aware.

They know completely what's going on.

I can't imagine why anyonewould want to hurt them.

We're just lucky to be inthe same place as them.

– Devin, how are you feeling? – I am in heaven.

I got sprayed on.

I am one with the elephants.

– It's just an honor to be here.

– It really is an honor to be here.

Like, we blessed and honored.

– Yeah.

– I, like, I might cry.

– Yes.

– Because I'm a big elephant baby, myself.

– Ultimately, I thinkthe overwhelming feeling is that we're all reallygrateful to be here, and thankful that we getto be in the presence of these animals, because they're special.

– That was incredible.

– That was amazing.

It was really awesomejust to see these animals in their space, where we were the guests.

These are little babies, and they're orphans.

And so a lot of them have had a really, really rough start to life, but there's still somuch joy that they have.

They still play, they still snort.

They still bully.

They still love their milk.

They fart.

– They do fart.

– Freddie got farted on.

– I did.

– It's like humans were once able to coexist with these animals.

And I think it's reallyimportant that we learn how to coexist with them again, because they are, like, an incredibly important part of our world.

– Thank you so much tothe David Sheldrick Trust.

We are so grateful thatwe are able to be here and hang out with baby elephants.

– And thank you for all you do.

I mean, this is just, it'sa blessing to be here.

And it's a blessing to all the animals that are able to get help.

We just finished.

– And now we gotta go clean ourselves up, because I got this on my nose.

– Devin was in there.

– (laughs)- All up in there.

– On your back pocket, youhave a phone-shaped dust stain.

– So we have to go clean up before we go shopping, that's for damn sure.

– Just Devin's fullbody, Devin's dust stain.

– Hi.

– So we're going shopping.

– Shopping!- Yeah.

– Yo, we have the amazing Lorna here.

– She'll help us.

– She's going to help us navigate.

– I might buy a teapot.

– I left a lot of room in my suitcase for all of the various things that I will take home with me.

– Yes, you'll be dope.

– Yep.

– Woo! – Well, we're here.

– It's very different, andthere's a lot of options.

So I'm just trying to figureout what I absolutely need and want, as opposed to, like, buying every awesome thing that I see.

– That's a good strategy.

– Yeah.

– I'm looking for, likepostcards, and maybe, like, a hat.

Also, maybe, like, a coollittle keychain or something.

– So Ivy and I stuck togetherthrough this whole adventure.

She's the best barterer.

– Thanks.

I see deals everywhere.

– I would be like, Ivy, is this a good price? She's like, I can haggle for days.

What price do you want?- (laughs) – Cathy got me these cool braid jewels.

We're matching twins!- Twins! – I'm just shopping around, and whatever I don't want, I'll just put back.

– So cute.

– So cute.

So now I have three.

And I have a bangle as well.

And a scarf for my mom.

Mom, I bought you something, so don't complain.

Thank you.

You have been very helpful.

– Yeah? I'm just happy you got something.

You got what you wanted.

– Oh, yeah.

Oh, yeah, I did.

– Cathy and I also got matching bracelets.

– Shopaholics!- Love it.

– I got a little bird.

I also got a little bit ofsalad spoons for my roommate.

– I got so many spoils.

– So much stuff.

– We got some nice stuff.

– Ivy got us these beautiful keychains with our names on them.

– With our names on them! – I got a bunch of these bracelets.

This is my favorite item, guys.

– Yes, it's so nice.

– And I got one just like hers.

– Tank tops need them.

– This is the SS Paradise.

This is your captain speaking.

We're on our way to Tsavo.

So buckle in, everyone.

It's going to be a bumpy ride.

(laughs) – She just wants Kristin.

– So glappy.

Glappy.

– We bought hats!- We bought hats, because we didn't realizewe didn't have hats.

So we fixed that problem.

– And bought hats.

– And we bought hats.

What?- Wow.

– So we are at Tsavo Safari Park.

I just want to introduceyou guys to my new friend, vacation Kristin.

– What up, friend? – Kristin is wearing her big sunglasses.

– I am.

My big sunglasses, andI'm also wearing shorts, because it is very warm andI am enjoying the scenery.

– Yeah.

I mean, this is a view from our porch.

– Like, take every girlscout camp you went to that you thought was, like, kind of fun.

And then make it 100 times more fun, and then add animals.

– The ride here was probablyabout 5 and 1/2-ish hours.

And when we got here, we wereall super tired and smelly, but just, like, in awe.

– Yeah, we're in awe ofboth this beautiful place and how incredibly bad we smell.

– We're going to go meet up with Sam and check in with her, andtalk a little bit about these past few days andabout what we're doing in this wonderful, beautiful, amazing place.

– Hi, Sam.

– Hey.

– So we talked to Dr.

Mbuaabout Mitochondrial Eve.

Can you maybe give us a little bit more information about what that means? – Definitely.

We're looking at maternal haplogroups, and we can trace it allback in time to one woman.

So that one woman is mitochondrial Eve.

But then there's a couple caveats to that.

When we use the termMitochondrial Eve, it's sort of an easy way to help peopleunderstand that this was a real woman, a real human being who gave rise, in a sense, toeveryone who's around today.

And what's, I think, themost important point here is that she was absolutely not the only woman alive at that time.

And she was also not theonly woman to pass on genetic information, or genes, orDNA, to future generations.

– So to clarify, MitochondrialEve was not the only woman that existed aroundthe time that she existed? – Exactly, you got it.

– Hers was just the onlyones that could be traced? – Yes.

– So I like to fall down Wikipedia holes.

And one thing I loveto research is actually the oldest buildings in existence.

– You do, you sure do.

– There are many, manybuildings that are very old.

So it's kind of like we know that there is an oldest building in existence.

But that doesn't mean that that's the only building thatexisted at the time.

– Sure.

– It's just the one that we can trace for sure isthe oldest one right now.

– Because we can still physically see it and identify it, sure.

– There might be anotherbuilding that's crazy old that's, like, under the sea or something that we don't know about yet.

– Atlantis.

– Yeah.

(laughs) – Why is it that mitochondrialDNA is only passed down through the parent that gives birth? – That's a great question.

– Like, why is Eve the only one that gets to, like, shoot that stuff down? – Eggs actually have a huge, huge number of mitochondria in them.

Something like 100, 000.

Sperm actually might only have on the order of, like, 50 to 100.

So that's one possibility.

– SO it's like buying alot of lottery tickets.

– Exactly.

– Like, the egg bought a bunch of lottery tickets, andthe sperm bought, like two.

– Yeah.

Another possibility, though, that is enticing, but we haven't really proven it yet, is the eggs themselves might be destroying the mitochondria that come from the sperm.

– A murder mystery.

– Ooh.

– So tomorrow's goingto be a big day for us.

We're going to go on asafari, and then we're going to go to the lava caves.

And we're going to kindof, like, dive into and try to figure out why we should care about this stuff now.

– We'll go find out.

– Let's do it.

– And today, we're going on a safari.

– It's really early in the morning.

You have to get up at the crack of dawn to see all the ani-mules.

– Devin just saw zebras thismorning outside of our tent.

– Yep.

– And we saw a wildebeest last night just staring at us.

– It's wild.

– It's wild.

It's truly wild.

– This is probably the brightest color I've worn since I've been here, and I saved it forsafari day so I can have a little pop of color for papa lion.

– So tell us a little bit, Angela, about this art that we see on the walls.

Like, how long ago were these made? – We do not have a definite date for how long the art was made.

We use relative dating to saythat these finds were found with this art, so they musthave been contemporaneous.

Some of this art is quiteenigmatic, as you can see.

Those ones look like aliens, actually.

– They do.

– And one of the guys is excited.

– Yeah, he definitely has a little peen.

– There was no writing then, but they make a very good record of what was going on around them.

In terms of their cognitive ability, they were pretty much like us.

– Yas, graceful bitches.

– This is so cool.

– This is ridiculous.

– He's just chinchillin'.

– Oh, Kristin, you did not.

– They're like hamburgers, but furry.

– Hyena! – Is this the first hyena we've seen? – Yes.

– He started walking towards our car.

When someone said that wewere going on a safari, I had no idea we weregetting out of the car.

– I also didn't know wewere getting out of the car.

That's why I'm wearing a dress.

– Look at, holding her baby.

Good job, mama.

– There's the food right there.

And there's this monkeytrying to be nonchalant.

– Casual.

– He be all casual monkey.

– Oh my god! Whoa.

Whoa.

– So we had to eat in the carbecause the little monkeys keep trying to steal our food.

And they just jumped on the hood.

– Yeah, they actually grabbed Sam's food.

– And before I knew if, there was a monkey right here trying to get into mybags, and I screamed.

– I've always been afraidof monkeys, and this is why.

– This monkey's just, you know- He's so rude.

– Beating his meat.

– (laughs) – What is he doing? – I think we know what he's doing.

– They're smart.

– Yeah, and way smart.

– They know how to send distractions so that they can get our food.

– I couldn't decide if this is my most favorite animal or myleast favorite animal.

And I can definitively tell you it is my least favorite animal.

– So that sign says “do not feed monkeys.

” And now we know why.

– I feel like we're getting surround sound of crickets right now.

– Yeah.

This is crickets in 4K.

– I am glad I peed before wegot here, though, because that rushing water would haveknocked my lunch right out.

– It's really cool to seeall this untouched space.

And when you think aboutback in the states, there are really beautiful areas, but I think sometimes, we can't help to expect that they won't be there for long, just because of all the development.

– So we begin about 40, 000 years ago, where we have the oldestostrich egg shell beads that have been found in Kenya so far.

– Is an ostrich egg shell, like, pretty fragile? – It is, yes.

So that tells you about the people who were making those shells, their cognitive abilities, and the fact that they knewhow to deal with this material to prevent it from breaking up.

– Yeah.

– In the old times, we think that beads may have served more than one reason.

They may have been usedas a form of currency.

Some of them have beentransported from very far in places where ostriches do not live.

So then you must have hadto buy either the beads or the ostrich eggshell inorder to make the beads.

So the question, obviously, has been, were the beads made by men or by women? – Did men wear these beads also? – They are worn by both sexes.

– It's a hippo walk withJen and Kristin and Chantel.

Walking to see some hippos.

– Where we're going, you can go into kind of, like, an underwater viewing.

And then we're hoping wecan see some hippos there.

Like hippos, and like, some crocodiles.

– Yeah, but we were told weare not allowed to scream because it will scare some animals, and they might attack us.

The problem is, I will have to scream.

– I will kill you from the afterlife.

– Well, nice try, Kristin.

– Because I'm already dead.

– I'm already dead.

– There's all the poop.

I mean, that's how youknow how we've been.

– Can't wait to come outto those elephants next.

– So we're walking down the path towards the underwater viewing.

But we already see hipposjust kind of sitting.

We were walking, and thenthere was a crocodile there.

– Yeah, the only thingthat distinguished him from the rocks were the texture.

– Mm-hmm, like his tail.

You can see the spikes on his tail.

– And they said it's probablya male based on his size.

– Okay, we're going down in here.

This water is so blue.

– It's so blue, it just.

.

.

It kind of reminds me ofvacation, and I feel like any time I see this kind of blue water, it's like, ooh, perfect for frolicking.

Look, get some pics in the water.

But like, this is notthat kind of situation.

– No.

– This is danger water.

– This is the crocodile show, and we are merely audience members.

– So here we have stone tools that have been done with a lotof skill and ingenuity.

– So those are projectiles.

Like, something they would have thrown? – These are projectiles.

But this kind of community werevery innovative in that they were able to find someochre and some other gum, mix it together, make a verystrong adhesive, or glue.

They can use this to put halftip into a piece of food, and then use it to other projectiles to ward off enemies, fight off predator.

– They had to think abouthow they could make something that was aerodynamic andalso effective at a distance, which is better than we could do today.

– So they were smart.

– And even now, more recently now, we have evidence of violence.

– Would you say the men and women in this society, they both fought? – From what we have, we see men and women being victims of this kind of violence.

And even women also fighting, hunting using these projectile points.

So it's not only what we constitute from our gender-specific roles.

– Could you imagine having tofind your lunch in this place? – That's nuts.

– It's like trying to gothrough a McDonalds drive-thru, but there's a crocodile at the drive-thru.

– Right? Like, you have obstacles.

– There are obstacles.

I mean, honestly, MitochondrialEve had to have been a pretty badass humanin order to stay alive long enough to give us themutations that we have.

– Yeah, exactly.

– I can't imagine just beinghere in this environment 200, 000 years ago with no real direction as to how to survive, and justhaving to just figure it out.

– Not even knowing what these animals are.

– Yeah, not knowing.

– We're just like, ohyeah, that's a hippo.

That's a crocodile.

But it's like.

.

.

– And then knowing who is predator, who is prey, who is most dangerous.

– Yeah.

– Like, that's.

.

.

It's insane.

– If your environment is super diverse, you as a human have to adapt, as well.

That shows how strongMitochondrial Eve really was.

– We're on Poacher's Lookout right now.

– We can see Kilimanjaro from here.

You can see the snow on top of it.

This is not something thatyou can typically see.

Just a very clear day.

Right, Kristin?- Yeah.

This is a special treat.

For some special ladies.

– Ooh.

– So Sam, we've been exploring all day.

It's got me thinking, what is the significance of knowing the maternalhaplogroup in modern-day society? – Do you guys know about King Richard III? – Yes.

– Shakespeare.

– Shakespeare, right.

Up until a few years ago, they had no idea where he was buried.

And there was a parkinglot in Leicester, England.

And they found this old tomb.

And there was a skeleton inside this tomb.

So when they looked at themitochondrial DNA of the skeleton and they compared it to femaleline of descendants of, say, his grandmother or something, or a cousin on the maternal side, there was a match.

– Oh (bleep).

– And so they were able to confirm with a very high degree of certainty that the skeleton didbelong to King Richard III.

Mitochondrial DNA, andhaplogroups, and sort of understanding how that all fits together can fill in a lot of gaps in history.

– The cradle of life.

– Cradle of humanity.

– Wow.

– So let's go down in this cave.

– Yeah.

– Woo! – Uh, actually, noone's going in the cave.

There are thousands of batsand two hornet's nests.

So we are not going in the cave.

– Oh, come on, mom.

– We're not going in the cave.

– Mom.

– No one's going in.

– You guys are back from seeing the bats.

– So we abandoned the others.

– Yeah, we left them to die.

– We left them for dead.

– It smelled like absolute ass.

– Well you guys did go into a hole in the ground full of bats.

– Yeah, it's awful.

– I don't know if I wasexpecting that smell, though.

– I told you thousands of bats.

– I thought it would smell good.

It circles around, so they're actually going to come out of adifferent side and meet us.

So they're probably alive.

– They're fine.

– So we actually wound upgoing down into the cave.

And it was awesome.

– It was really cool.

It smelled like (bleep).

Like, really bad (bleep).

– Like cat pee, basically.

Because the bats poop andpee all over the place.

– Yeah.

But it was really beautiful.

If I were a human living250, 000 years ago, I definitely would havelived in that cave, because you can build a fire, you're safe from the elements, and no leopards are goingto get you in there.

– No leopards.

– Whoa.

– So we just saw our firstelephant in the actual wild.

– It was so special.

It was a young bull, so a guy elephant.

He was just by himself, looking for his ladies.

– Yeah, Tim said that oncethe men reach maturity, they kind of break off from the herd.

So he was alone.

But all the women sticktogether, which is pretty cool.

Tim also told us that they'rea matriarchal society, and that the older, wiserwoman, or female elephant, leads the pack, since sheknows the ropes and everything.

– And Hollywood should take aleaf from their books, okay? – So excited for the beach! – My butt is so sweaty.

– What does my hair look like right now? – It looks great.

– Really? – You've got volume.

– You've got a lot of volume.

– I have volume.

I'm a beautiful mop.

– Almost there.

– Yay.

– We are now descendingdown towards the ocean.

– And lunch.

– I don't even know what to say.

– Worth the drive? – Yes, absolutely worth the drive.

– What if we missed our flight tomorrow? – Look at this view and this beach.

– That drive was startingto seem like there was no light at the end of the tunnel.

But alas, there is.

– Very speechless right now.

It smells like a beach.

And that's, like, perhapsthe greatest thing anyone could ever smell right now.

– I can confidently sayI've never been to any place this gorgeous before in my entire life.

– Look who's here.

Hi, friend- Hi, booboo.

– So last morning in Kenya.

It's beautiful outside.

– We're very grateful and changed, and probably better peoplefor having been here.

– Yeah, I don't think we want to go home.

– No.

– I don't.

– We're about to go film on this beach and say goodbye to Kenya.

We are here.

It's our last morning in Kenya.

We are at Diani Beach.

– This has been a jam-packed trip.

– It really has.

– Yeah.

I mean, we started off in Nairobi.

We met up with some experts atthe National Museum of Kenya, and they taught us so much.

And we also met with the Over 25 girls.

They were a highlight.

– We saw elephants in that orphanage.

And then we also saw themcompletely out in the wild.

It was apparently really rareto see them where we saw them.

– And then we drove sixhours to Tsavo National Park, where we were really up close and personal with all the wildlife and the environment.

And then we took an eighthour drive to Diani Beach, which is where we are now.

It's been a trip fullof so many experiences that I don't think anyof us will ever forget.

– So Sam, what have youlearned on this trip? – I learned not to havefood out by monkeys.

– Very true.

– We all learned that.

– Good takeaway.

– I talked to those anthropologistsat the National Museum of Kenya, kind oflearning about the culture and the way these people lived was a very powerful experience for me.

– I learned that to be aperson who would give rise to all humans who currently exist, you had to be prettygood at lots of things that we are probably not good at.

I think it's fascinating toknow that there was a person this many thousands of years ago who was so smart and great at surviving that we get a chance to experience this land and this place, too.

– You can read about Kenya.

You can see pictures of Kenya.

But it's so differentto actually touch down.

It's really unlike anything else, because you really can't fully even begin to absorb it until you're actually here.

– One thing that really boggled my mind is the timeline of human history.

– Like, Mitochondrial Eve might have lived over 100, 000 years ago.

And while we've evolved somuch throughout the years, this land is still very much present.

– We went to Kenya and like, that is one piece of where she could have lived, Mitochondrial Eve.

And like, Sub-SaharanAfrica in itself is huge.

And we just saw a small partof something even huger.

Just very grateful foreverything we saw and did, because what an amazing time.

– Something that reallystruck me in Nairobi was when Dr.

Mbua was explaining to us that people from different continents just sort of arose from that continent.

But with further studying andlearning about haplogroups, we learned that everyonedid indeed come from Africa.

– The human species is onthe one hand, very diverse.

But on the other hand, if you compare it to other species like chimpanzees, we are very not diverse.

We are all incrediblysimilar, genetically speaking.

And so it's really popular these days to find out where you're from, to look at your genetics.

And we comb through it tofind these tiny differences that can say, oh, maybe yourancestors came from this place, or yours came from this place.

But the bigger picture is that humans are so similar genetically.

And it is actually really difficult to find those small differences.

– I've never beenoverseas ever in my life.

So this is somethingthat I'm really excited to check off my bucket list.

And even more excitedto do it with you guys.

– We're very grateful to 23andMefor sending us out there.

Also very grateful forthem for sending you, because could not havehad a better new friend.

– Big thank you to everyonethat made it happen.

It was so much bigger than just us.

And thank you to the people of Kenya, because they've been so welcoming, and really just embracedwhat we were trying to do.

– A deep dive into theorigins of modern humanity.

– Lady tested.

– Lady learned.

– Woo! Let's go in the ocean.

– Bye.

Let's jump in! – Gonna swim back home.

.

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